Dependency Injection in ASP.NET Core

Creating the View Model

Create the Models folder and create the following viewModel.

public class ProductViewModel
    public int Id { get; set; }
    public string Name { get; internal set; }

Adding the Service

Create the folder Services and add a class with the name ProductService.cs.

using DependencyInjection.Models;
using System.Collections.Generic;
namespace DependencyInjection.Service
    public interface IProductService
        List<ProductViewModel> getAll();
    public class ProductService : IProductService
        public List<ProductViewModel> getAll()
            return new List<ProductViewModel>
                new ProductViewModel {Id = 1, Name = "Pen Drive" },
                new ProductViewModel {Id = 2, Name = "Memory Card" },
                new ProductViewModel {Id = 3, Name = "Mobile Phone" },
                new ProductViewModel {Id = 4, Name = "Tablet" },
                new ProductViewModel {Id = 5, Name = "Desktop PC" } ,

Using the Service in Controller

using DependencyInjection.Service;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
namespace DependencyInjection.Controllers
    public class HomeController : Controller
        private IProductService _productService;
        public HomeController(IProductService productService)
            _productService = productService;
        public IActionResult Index()
            return View(_productService.getAll());

Register the Service

The last step is to register the service in the Dependency Injection container.

Open the startup.cs and goto to ConfigureServices method. This is where all services are configured for dependency injection.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
    services.AddTransient<IProductService, ProductService>();

Managing the Service Lifetime

There are three ways, by which you can do that. And it in turn decides how the DI Framework manages the lifecycle of the services.

  1. Transient: creates a new instance of the service, every time you request it.
  2. Scoped: creates a new instance for every scope. (Each request is a Scope). Within the scope, it reuses the existing service.
  3. Singleton: Creates a new Service only once during the application lifetime, and uses it everywhere
services.AddTransient<ITransientService, SomeService>();
services.AddScoped<IScopedService, SomeService>();
services.AddSingleton<ISingletonService, SomeService>();


Convert MP4 video to MP3 audio with FFmpeg

ffmpeg -i filename.mp4 filename.mp3

fixed bit rate :

ffmpeg -i video.mp4 -b:a 192K -vn music.mp3

variable bit rate :

ffmpeg -i in.mp4 -q:a 0 -map a out.mp3

variable bit rate of 165 with libmp3lame encoder :

ffmpeg -vn -sn -dn -i input.mp4 -codec:a libmp3lame -qscale:a 4 output.mp3
  • -vn disables all video-streams from the input
  • -sn disables all subtitle-streams from the input
  • -dn disables all data-streams from the input
  • -i specifies the input file
  • -codec:a libmp3lame specifies the encoder
  • -qscale:a 4 specifies the quality target for libmp3lame
  • The last argument is the output-file. Note that the file-extension might be used to infer additional information.


Minimum Log Level in Serilog

Serilog defines several levels of log events. From low to high, these are Verbose, Debug, Information, Warning, Error and Fatal.

Level Usage
Verbose Verbose is the noisiest level, rarely (if ever) enabled for a production app.
Debug Debug is used for internal system events that are not necessarily observable from the outside, but useful when determining how something happened.
Information Information events describe things happening in the system that correspond to its responsibilities and functions. Generally these are the observable actions the system can perform.
Warning When service is degraded, endangered, or may be behaving outside of its expected parameters, Warning level events are used.
Error When functionality is unavailable or expectations broken, an Error event is used.
Fatal The most critical level, Fatal events demand immediate attention.

Default Level – if no MinimumLevel is specified, then Information level events and higher will be processed.


Setting up Serilog in .NET 6 for ASP.NET

dotnet add package Serilog.AspNetCore

Select Providers:


builder.Host.UseSerilog((ctx, lc) => lc
    .MinimumLevel.Override("Microsoft", LogEventLevel.Warning)
    .WriteTo.File("logs/log-.txt", rollingInterval: RollingInterval.Day)

Finally, clean up by removing the remaining configuration for the default logger, including the "Logging" section from appsettings.*.json files


Set and Unset Local, User and System Wide Environment Variables in Linux

An environment variable can be in three types:
1. Local Environment Variable


$ VAR1='TecMint is best Site for Linux Articles'
$ echo $VAR1
$ unset VAR1
$ echo $VAR1


$ export VAR='TecMint is best Site for Linux Articles'
$ echo $VAR
$ VAR=
$ echo $VAR


$ VAR2='TecMint is best Site for Linux Articles'
$ echo $VAR2
$ env -i bash
$ echo $VAR2

2. User Environment Variable

a) Modify .bashrc file in your home directory to export or set the environment variable you need to add. After that source the file, to make the changes take effect. Then you would see the variable (‘CD’ in my case), taking effect. This variable will be available every time you open a new terminal for this user, but not for remote login sessions.

$ vi .bashrc

Add the following line to .bashrc file at the bottom.

export CD='This is TecMint Home'

Now run the following command to take new changes and test it.

$ source .bashrc 
$ echo $CD

To remove this variable, just remove the following line in .bashrc file and re-source it:

b) To add a variable which will be available for remote login sessions (i.e. when you ssh to the user from remote system), modify .bash_profile file.

$ vi .bash_profile

Add the following line to .bash_profile file at the bottom.

export VAR2='This is TecMint Home'

When on sourcing this file, the variable will be available when you ssh to this user, but not on opening any new local terminal.

$ source .bash_profile 
$ echo $VAR2

Here, VAR2 is not initially available but, on doing ssh to user on localhost, the variable becomes available.

$ ssh tecmint@localhost
$ echo $VAR2

To remove this variable, just remove the line in .bash_profile file which you added, and re-source the file.

NOTE: These variables will be available every time you are logged in to current user but not for other users.

3. System wide Environment Variables

a) To add system wide no-login variable (i.e. one which is available for all users when any of them opens new terminal but not when any user of machine is remotely accessed) add the variable to /etc/bash.bashrc file.

export VAR='This is system-wide variable'

After that, source the file.

$ source /etc/bash.bashrc 

Now this variable will be available for every user when he opens any new terminal.

$ echo $VAR
$ sudo su
$ echo $VAR
$ su -
$ echo $VAR

Here, same variable is available for root user as well as normal user. You can verify this by logging in to other user.

b) If you want any environment variable to be available when any of the user on your machine is remotely logged in, but not on opening any new terminal on local machine, then you need to edit the file – '/etc/profile'.

export VAR1='This is system-wide variable for only remote sessions'

After adding the variable, just re-source the file. Then the variable would be available.

$ source /etc/profile
$ echo $VAR1

To remove this variable, remove the line from /etc/profile file and re-source it.

c) However, if you want to add any environment which you want to be available all throughout the system, on both remote login sessions as well as local sessions( i.e. opening a new terminal window) for all users, just export the variable in /etc/environment file.

export VAR12='I am available everywhere'

After that just source the file and the changes would take effect.

$ source /etc/environment
$ echo $VAR12
$ sudo su
$ echo $VAR12
$ exit
$ ssh localhost
$ echo $VAR12

Here, as we see the environment variable is available for normal user, root user, as well as on remote login session (here, to localhost).

To clear out this variable, just remove the entry in the /etc/environment file and re-source it or login again.

NOTE: Changes take effect when you source the file. But, if not then you might need to log out and log in again.


Calling JavaScript from .NET in Blazor

JavaScript should be added into either /Pages/_Host.cshtml in Server-side Blazor apps, or in wwwroot/index.html for Web Assembly Blazor apps.


var BlazorApp = {
    helloWorld: function () {
        alert("Hello World");
    hello: function (name) {
        alert("Hello " + name);
    sayHi: function (name) {
        return "Hello " + name;

add to _Host.cshtml :

<script src="~/scripts/BlazorApp.js"></script>


@page "/"
@inject IJSRuntime JsRuntime;

    Name : <input @bind-value="name"/>

<button @onclick="Hello">Hello</button>
<button @onclick="SayHi">Say Hi</button>


    private string name;
    private string output;

    protected override Task OnAfterRenderAsync(bool firstRender)
        if (firstRender)
    // here blazor is ready to call javascript
            Console.WriteLine("Javascript is ready");

        return base.OnAfterRenderAsync(firstRender);

    private async Task Hello()
        await JsRuntime.InvokeVoidAsync("BlazorApp.hello", name);

    private async Task SayHi()
        output = await JsRuntime.InvokeAsync<string>("BlazorApp.sayHi", name);


Pre-compressed static files with ASP.NET Core

Install gzipper

npm i gzipper -D

Add module to scripts in your package.json and run compress command npm run compress

"scripts": {
   "gzipper": "gzipper",
   "compress": "gzipper compress ./src"

or Use npx command.

"scripts": {
  "compress": "npx gzipper compress ./src"

Serve static files

var mimeTypeProvider = new FileExtensionContentTypeProvider();
app.UseStaticFiles(new StaticFileOptions
    OnPrepareResponse = context =>
        var headers = context.Context.Response.Headers;
        var contentType = headers["Content-Type"];
        if (contentType != "application/x-gzip" && !context.File.Name.EndsWith(".gz"))
        var fileNameToTry = context.File.Name.Substring(0, context.File.Name.Length - 3);
        if (mimeTypeProvider.TryGetContentType(fileNameToTry, out var mimeType))
            headers.Add("Content-Encoding", "gzip");
            headers["Content-Type"] = mimeType;


Response Caching in ASP.NET Core

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);


var app = builder.Build();


// UseCors must be called before UseResponseCaching

//Near the start

//ensure response compression is added before static files